ISO 14990-1:2016 specifies general safety requirements for the electrical equipment and its components incorporated into earth-moving machines (EMMs) as defined in ISO 6165, and addresses the safety of operators, technicians, service/maintenance personnel and bystanders.
It is applicable to those machines using on-board voltages in the ranges of 50 V?36 kV AC r.m.s. at any frequency and 75 V?36 kV DC ? including any repetition rate of pulsating DC ? intended for outdoor use. It is applicable to both low and high voltages, except where its applicability to high- or low-voltage equipment only is indicated. Voltages occurring within devices are not considered to be on-board voltages and are thus not within its scope.
NOTE 1 Special considerations typically apply at frequencies greater than 30 kHz. Where reference standards are limited to frequencies below those used on the EMM, it is the responsibility of the user to assess the risks and address them appropriately.
ISO 14990-1:2016 covers all significant hazards, hazardous situations, and hazardous events relevant to the voltage range for earth-moving machinery within its scope when the machinery is used as intended or under conditions of misuse reasonably foreseeable by the manufacturer. It specifies appropriate technical measures for eliminating or reducing risks arising from significant hazards, hazardous situations, or hazardous events during commissioning, operation, and maintenance. It is not applicable to machines manufactured before the date of its publication.
It is intended to be used in conjunction with ISO 14990-2 and ISO 14990-3, which give provisions specific to the machine's power source that take precedence over the requirements of this document for the machines covered. For multipurpose machinery, all those parts of ISO 14990 are applicable whose requirements cover the functions and applications of the machine.
Even though this document addresses most hazards associated with the use of low- or high-voltage electrical systems in earth-moving machines, owing to the possible presence of additional electrical hazards, conformance with it cannot be taken as an absolute guarantee of electrical safety. Areas of concern are included in the list of significant hazards found in Annex A.
ISO 14990-1:2016 specifies requirements for on-board generators, electrically isolated from other low-voltage systems and provided as power sources for general-purpose socket outlets installed on EMMs, and transformer or inverter power sources for general-purpose socket outlets.
NOTE 2 Local or regional requirements may also apply to general-purpose socket outlet arrangements.
Although nominal 12 V and 24 V (alternator/battery) systems are not addressed, the meeting of some of the requirements, including those of PELV, will ensure that the low-voltage system is sufficiently isolated from 12 V and 24 V systems.
ISO 14990-1:2016 does not address risks associated with explosive atmospheres, which are sometimes found in mining and other EMM applications.