Cyber-physical systems integrate computational components (information processing) with physical processes, which interact through a network. Technological advances in the ‘Internet of Things’, ‘Robotics’, and ‘Autonomous vehicles’ are the foundation for making cyber-physical systems possible, and today there are examples of successful cyber-physical systems everywhere… from driver less trains, to smart buildings, to household appliances and everyday items such as cleaning robots, wearable fitness devices or electric bikes.

Cyber-physical systems provide an opportunity to positively improve our quality of life in many domains, ranging from transportation, to healthcare, farming, manufacturing, smart grids, and everyday living. A key challenge, however, is the need for engineering innovation to work in coordination with information technology innovation, as the physical meets the digital. Developing common languages and other commonalities in this pluri-disciplinary field will facilitate future development of these systems. In addition, as with many technological advances, unintended consequences of integrating cyber-physical systems are likely to emerge in future, and it is therefore important to think ahead about the ethics surrounding these systems and how future regulation can limit risks related to safety, responsibility, liability, privacy and more.

Technology trends

Robotics

Robotics technology is developing quickly and is already able to replace human labour for a range of tasks. Vast improvements in the capabilities of robots are expected to continue and this will lead to changes across many industries[1,2,3]:

  • Healthcare will benefit from the increased use of robots in basic medicine and diagnostics, reducing costs for individuals and the economic burden of publicly funded health services.[1]
  • Robots will continue to take over human labour in manufacturing, displacing workers as a result – the pace of technological development may create extreme pressures on education and training systems to support the adaptation of workforces (see ‘Effects of automation’).[1,4] However, robotics is also expected to lead to new types of work[5], as large numbers of robotics technicians will be required to maintain these ‘fleets of robots’ and the data generated and collected by robots will be immense, leading to growing demand for data scientists to make use ofit.[3]
  • The agricultural sector will increasingly use robots for manual tasks such as seeding, weeding, and harvesting, with sensors improving in their ability to identify ripe produce, harvest plants and detect disease.[3]
  • A range of military applications is anticipated, raising increasingly complex ethical questions. If terrorist organizations and non-state armed groups have access to this technology, it will increase the complexity of conflict.[6]
  • The automotive and transportation sector will move towards increasing production and use of ‘Autonomous vehicles’, made possible by advances in robotics and other emerging technologies (see ‘5G’).[4] The carsharing company Uber, for example, is currently expanding its driverless-car programme. This may lead to a reduction in private car ownership and use.[5]

As robots increase in power, their applications are likely to grow. Computing for robots is now possible in the Cloud, increasing their processing power and speed.[7] Advances in sensors, speech-recognition technology and computer vision will all contribute to more advanced robotics products, including robots that are able to operate in uncontrolled settings – known as ‘open-world autonomy’.[3]

News stories

Dʼici peu, les robots feront partie de notre quotidien. Nos compagnons mobiles répondront bientôt à tous nos besoins. Ils nous assisteront, communiqueront avec nous et nous tiendront compagnie, contribuant …
ISO/TS 15066, nouvelle spécification technique ISO sur la sécurité des robots collaboratifs, traite de l’interaction entre l’homme et les robots dans l’industrie.
Et si les cyborgs existaient ? Moitié robot, moitié humain, fonctionnant comme un être de chair, voici une machine qui n'est plus de la science-fiction : elle s'appelle HAL.
Comité technique
ISO/TC 299
Robotique
  • 26 Normes publiées | 11 Projets en développement
  • ISO/DIS 5363 [En cours d'élaboration]
    Robotique
    Méthodes d'essai du robot ambulant RACA de type exosquelette
  • ISO 8373:2021
    Robotique
    Vocabulaire
  • ISO/FDIS 10218-1 [En cours d'élaboration]
    Robotique
    Exigences de sécurité
    Partie 1: Robots industriels
  • ISO/FDIS 10218-2 [En cours d'élaboration]
    Robotique
    Exigences de sécurité
    Partie 2: Systèmes robots industriels, applications robotisées et de cellules robotisées
  • ISO 11593:2022
    Robots manipulateurs industriels
    Systèmes de changement automatique de terminal
    Vocabulaire
  • ISO 13482:2014
    Robots et composants robotiques
    Exigences de sécurité pour les robots de soins personnels
  • ISO/TS 15066:2016
    Robots et dispositifs robotiques
    Robots coopératifs

Autonomous vehicles

Autonomous vehicle technology is not a one-size-fits-all concept, as there are different considerations and implications for road, ship, or rail transport. The degree of automation can vary as well, and classified in ranges from Level 0 (fully manual) to Level 5 (driverless). The following discussion explores autonomous vehicles as a high-level trend only, where autonomous vehicles are understood as all forms of driverless transport systems.

Autonomous vehicles are already used in industrial settings, in some public transport systems (e.g. driverless trains), and automation technology is increasingly integrated in our cars (e.g. cruise control, self-parking technology or traffic jam pilot).[8,9] While the autonomous vehicle market is growing as a whole, with an expected CAGR of over 39% from 2019 to 2026, the deployment of fully automated (driverless) vehicles on public roads is still years away.[10,11] The impact of more autonomous vehicles is likely to be double-sided. They may eliminate the need for drivers of vehicles of all kinds: trucks, taxis, and public transport vehicles, representing a significant labour force impact in the coming decades.[1] At the same time, they may create opportunities for more efficient transport of goods and people to regional areas.[9] Indeed, a significant, expected benefit to society is improved population mobility due to use of autonomous vehicles for public transport, particularly in rural areas.[12]

Existing data on use of autonomous vehicles suggests they can reduce both safety incidents and fuel expenditure.[8] Autonomous vehicles are expected to make trade corridors significantly more efficient and, when combined with the energy efficiency of electric vehicles, increase the competitiveness of road transport against rail for the delivery of goods.[9]

Technology is also developing for autonomous vehicles beyond the road. Future innovations could include autonomous cargo ships and planes leading to more efficient supply chains in international trade.[8]

News stories

Une nouvelle norme vient tout juste d’être publiée. 
Chaque année, plus d’un million d’individus sont tués dans des accidents de la route. Dans la plupart des cas, l’erreur humaine constitue un facteur significatif dans ces collisions mortelles. Et même …
Comité technique
ISO/TC 241
Systèmes de management de la sécurité du trafic routier
  • 2 Normes publiées | 1 Projets en développement
  • ISO/DIS 39003 [En cours d'élaboration]
    Sécurité routière
    Recommandations relatives aux considérations éthiques en matière de sécurité pour les véhicules autonomes
Comité technique
ISO/TC 22
Véhicules routiers
  • 985 Normes publiées | 189 Projets en développement
  • ISO/TR 4804:2020
    Véhicules routiers
    Sécurité et cybersécurité pour les systèmes de conduite automatisée
    Conception, vérification et validation
Comité technique
ISO/TC 127
Engins de terrassement
  • 177 Normes publiées | 11 Projets en développement
  • ISO 17757:2019
    Engins de terrassement et exploitation minière
    Sécurité de système de machine autonome et semi-autonome
Comité technique
ISO/TC 204
Systèmes de transport intelligents
  • 327 Normes publiées | 80 Projets en développement
  • ISO 22737:2021
    Systèmes de transport intelligents
    Systèmes de conduite automatisée à basse vitesse pour des itinéraires prédéfinis (LSAD)
    Exigences de performance, exigences du système et procédures de test de performance
Comité technique
ISO/TC 268
Villes et communautés territoriales durables
  • 40 Normes publiées | 18 Projets en développement
  • ISO 37181:2022
    Infrastructures urbaines intelligentes
    Transport intelligent par véhicules autonomes sur la voie publique

Internet of Things

The Internet of Things (IoT) refers to a system of interconnected devices embedded with software, sensors, and other technologies (such as digital twin, cloud computing, big data and ‘Artificial intelligence’), which allows them to exchange data over the Internet for the purpose of improving functionality and monitoring. IoT systems are software and data-intensive, as well as network centric. They can be quite complex, ranging from simple architecture to systems which are multi-tiered, distributed, and ‘Cyber-physical systems’. IoT systems are key enablers of ‘smart everything’, including smart homes and buildings, ‘Smart manufacturing’, ‘Smart cities’, and smart farming, but also wearable technologies, medical devices, and vehicles.[11] Currently, there are twice as many devices connected to the Internet as people, and IoT connections are still expected grow at 17% per year.[4,11] Experts predict that, by 2025, an average Internet user will be interacting with IoT devices nearly 4,900 times each day.[4]

This increased device connectivity will result in massive amounts of data, creating growing needs for data storage, analytical capacity, and data protection. The data gathered by these devices can contribute to improved strategies to reduce poverty in some contexts, as well as increased sustainability and environmental protection. However, the IoT could also pose risks, if data are not sufficiently protected, or if it is used for unethical purposes.[2]

The rollout of emerging communications and networking technologies such as ‘5G‘ and satellite IoT will increase the reach, efficiency, and capacity of IoT devices, further growing the demand for these products.[3,11] For example, improved IoT technology and increased connectivity are already fostering the development of remote surgery technologies, which will “bring previously inaccessible healthcare to worldwide populations.”[3]

News stories

Trois nouvelles normes sont appelées à contribuer à accélérer l’avènement d’un monde connecté.
Dans le monde entier, le nombre d’appareils connectés progresse de manière exponentielle et « l’Internet des objets » est désormais présent dans tous les aspects de notre vie, de l’électricité à l’agriculture. …
Supposons qu’un criminel utilise la webcam associée à votre babyphone pour surveiller votre maison, ou que votre réfrigérateur envoie en votre nom des spams à des inconnus. Imaginons maintenant que quelqu’un …
L’Internet des objets (IoT) a le pouvoir de changer notre monde. Et si nouscommençons à en voir l’impact incroyable, nous ne sommes pourtant qu’audébut d’une évolution radicale. Nous faisons ici, avec …
La révolution de l’« Internet des objets » apportera de nombreuses améliorations à tous les secteurs de l’industrie, mais s’il y a un domaine dans lequel bon nombre des avantages de cette nouvelle technologie …
Aujourd’hui, l’incidence de l’Internet des objets sur nos vies se fait déjà sentir. Les entreprises répondent aux promesses nouvelles et aux enjeux de l’IoT. Les normes aident quant à elles à résoudre …
Comité technique
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 41
Internet des objets et technologies connexes
  • 41 Normes publiées | 3 Projets en développement
Comité technique
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 27
Sécurité de l’information, cybersécurité et protection de la vie privée
  • 227 Normes publiées | 63 Projets en développement
  • ISO/IEC 27001:2013 [Annulées]
    Technologies de l'information
    Techniques de sécurité
    Systèmes de management de la sécurité de l'information
    Exigences
  • ISO/IEC 27701:2019
    Techniques de sécurité
    Extension d'ISO/IEC 27001 et ISO/IEC 27002 au management de la protection de la vie privée
    Exigences et lignes directrices

Smart cities

Cities are the future of human organization, with over two-thirds of the global population expected to live in urban areas by 2030. This raises significant challenges, including the allocation of resources to growing populations and the management of their consumption and waste. Smart cities are rising to address these challenges by integrating smart technologies to address citizens’ needs more safely, sustainably, and efficiently, from goods and services to transport and logistics management. The World Economic Forum predicts that the technological tipping point for smart cities – that is, when they move from being novel entities to representing the norm – could occur as early as 2026.[13]

‘Smart’ can mean different things to different people. In ISO, a ‘smart city’ is considered to be one with “effective integration of physical, digital and human systems in the built environment to deliver a sustainable, prosperous and inclusive future for its citizens” (ISO/IEC 30182:2017, 2.14). Another helpful way to understand it is to look at smart as having three pillars: digital, physical, and economic. Digitally smart refers to the effective deployment of digital and communication technologies for city management. Physically smart refers to the adjustment and construction of sustainable infrastructures and processes that enhance the city’s resilience and the residents’ quality of life. Finally, economically smart refers to the effective collaboration between citizens and local businesses to share assets and resources to build a resilient community.[14] The evolution of smart cities is closely linked to innovation in ‘Internet of Things’, ‘5G‘ and DARQ technologies, ‘Distributed ledger‘, ‘Artificial intelligence’, ‘Extended reality’, ‘Quantum computing’, which are essential in supporting the deployment of smart cities around the globe.[3]

Smart cities can both improve the living conditions of residents and support more sustainable living arrangements. They do this by integrating smart grids (see ‘Energy’), energy-saving construction materials and buildings, efficient digital management systems for waste and other logistical needs and services to citizens.[8] This results in a more efficient use of resources and resilient, better-connected systems. However, with this increased connectivity also brings risks related to privacy and big-data sharing. Because a smart city depends on a highly interdependent connected network, this increases the risk that a security breach, hacking or technical issue such as a power cut could affect the entire system, with repercussions in all sectors.[15,16] There is also a concern about the ‘Big Brother’ dilemma – for smart technology to efficiently relay information and adapt systems to residents’ needs, big data must be collected using things like cameras, sensors, and IoT tools.[17]

To maintain citizens’ trust in the smart city concept, effective policies and regulations will be needed to protect residents’ privacy and personal information. Standardization plays an important role towards bringing trust amongst citizens, thanks to transparency and open processes, which is key for citizens acceptance and confidence.

News stories

ODD 11
Villes et communautés durables
Faire en sorte que les villes et les établissements humains soient ouverts à tous, sûrs, résilients et durables
Our cities produce most of the world’s carbon emissions. What can we do to reduce their impact on the climate and how can International Standards help?
De nouvelles lignes directrices viennent d’être publiées. 
Un nouveau rapport du Forum économique mondial préconise une approche intégrée pour parvenir à la neutralité carbone des zones urbaines. Voici quelques normes ISO phares qui seront utiles.
Une nouvelle norme pour les paiements numériques dans les transports publics vient d’être publiée.
L’IEC, l’ISO et l’UIT, leaders mondiaux de la normalisation, unissent leurs forces pour mieux servir les villes de demain.
Une série de normes visant à recenser les besoins des villes en matière de technologies de l’information est en cours.
Dans quelle sorte de ville souhaitons-nous vivre ? Une ville qui soit intelligente, résiliente et durable, bien entendu. Pour réaliser notre vision de l’avenir, nous devons engager le processus de planification …
Face aux enjeux climatiques et écologiques de demain, construire plus « durable » est une nécessité. Grenoble-Alpes Métropole se pose – et s’impose – comme un chef de file des villes durables.
Une ville intelligent est une ville résiliente, capable de s’adapter aux défis d’un monde en constante évolution tout en préservant ses fonctions essentielles. Mais comment les villes peuvent-elle déterminer …
Au rythme où l’urbanisation se développe dans le monde entier, notre avenir sera assurément urbain. L’innovation numérique peut contribuer à embellir cet avenir et c’est justement, cette année, le thème …
L’expansion des villes se poursuit. Au niveau mondial, 751 millions de personnes y résidaient en 1950. Augmentant sans cesse, la population en milieu urbain s’établissait à 4,2 milliards en 2018 et elle …
Chaque année, douze organisations se réunissent pour axer leurs efforts sur la collaboration en matière de normalisation internationale dans le domaine des technologies de l’information et de la communication. …
La plupart des villes du monde connaissent une croissance démographique rapide, à la fois porteuse de défis et d’opportunités en ce qui concerne la sécurité et le bien-être des citoyens. Pour aider les …
N’allez pas croire que l’expression « villes intelligentes » n’est rien de plus qu’une simple formule à la mode. D’ici 2050, les zones urbaines en plein développement devraient en effet accueillir 70 % …
Comité technique
ISO/TC 268
Villes et communautés territoriales durables
  • 40 Normes publiées | 18 Projets en développement
  • ISO 37106:2021
    Villes et communautés territoriales durables
    Lignes directrices pour l’établissement de stratégies pour les villes intelligentes et les collectivités
  • ISO 37122:2019
    Villes et communautés territoriales durables
    Indicateurs pour les villes intelligentes
  • ISO 37123:2019
    Villes et communautés territoriales durables
    Indicateurs de performance pour les villes résilientes
Comité technique
ISO/IEC JTC 1
Technologies de l'information
  • 3375 Normes publiées | 485 Projets en développement
Comité technique
ISO/TC 59/SC 17
Développement durable dans les bâtiments et les ouvrages de génie civil
  • 13 Normes publiées | 2 Projets en développement
  • ISO 21678:2020
    Développement durable dans les bâtiments et ouvrages de génie civil
    Indicateurs et référentiels
    Principes, exigences et lignes directrices
Comité technique
ISO/TC 205
Conception de l'environnement intérieur des bâtiments
  • 40 Normes publiées | 14 Projets en développement
  • ISO 17800:2017
    Modèle d'informations des réseaux électriques intelligents des installations
Comité technique
ISO/TMBG
Bureau de gestion technique - groupes
  • 82 Normes publiées | 6 Projets en développement
  • ISO/TMBG/JSCTF-TF 19 ISO, IEC and ITU Joint Smart Cities Task Force

References

  1. Global trends. Paradox of progress (US National Intelligence Council, 2017)
  2. Foresight Africa. Top priorities for the continent 2020-2030 (Brookings Institution, 2020)
  3. Technology vision 2020. We, the post-digital people (Accenture, 2020)
  4. Digital economy report 2019. Value creation and capture: implications for developing countries (UN Conference on Trade and Development, 2019)
  5. Global Trends and the future of Latin America. Why and how Latin America should think about the future (Inter-American Development Bank, Inter-American Dialogue, 2016)
  6. Global risks 2035 update. Decline or new renaissance? (Atlantic Council, 2019)
  7. 20 New technology trends we will see in the 2020s (BBC Science Focus Magazine, 2020)
  8. AGCS trend compass (Allianz, 2019)
  9. Global connectivity outlook to 2030 (World Bank, 2019)
  10. What are the levels of automated driving? (Aptiv, 2020)
  11. Future possibilities report 2020 (UAE Government, 2020)
  12. Global strategic trends. The future starts today (UK Ministry of Defence, 2018)
  13. Global trends to 2030. Challenges and choices for Europe (European Strategy and Policy Analysis System, 2019)
  14. Technology outlook 2030. Technology & society (Det Norske Veritas, 2021)
  15. Beyond the noise. The megatrends of tomorrow's world (Deloitte, 2017)
  16. Emerging technologies and smart cities (Forbes, 2021)
  17. Digital megatrends. A perspective on the coming decade of digital disruption (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, 2019)